After last week’s lesson, on the importance of brand and product management. This week we explored how we use models for brand building. We also explored the different types of brand attributes.


Intrinsic and Extrinsic

Brand characteristics can come in two varieties, these are intrinsic and extrinsic. It’s important to remember that the decision to purchase a product or service will be based off one of these types of attributes, both attributes play a part in what makes the customer buy.

Intrinsic attributes of a product refer to its basic functional characteristics such as performance and shape. If an intrinsic characteristic of the product were to change then this would impact the product directly and not necessarily the brand.

The other characteristics that a product can have are Extrinsic, which are not directly linked to the product itself. Extrinsic attributes derive from the brand name, marketing communications and messages, packaging, and price to name a few. These are all features that affect the perception of the product and often help customers to distinguish one brand from the next.


Brand Building Models

Companies use brand models to predict the behaviour of your customers and prospects. More specifically they help drill down into key brand messaging for achieving business growth. Outlined below are the main benefits of using a brand model:

  1. Consumer mindset – Using the right brand model you can identify the consumer’s mindset, as well as attitudes and behaviours towards your brand.
  2. Predict the future – Brand models will ask the ‘what if…’ questions to predict likely outcomes. With the future outcomes in mind, you can then start to consider future actions you might take.
  3. Providing information – Provides information that leads to insights that will help you achieve business goals.
  4. Quintessential framework – A brand model gives you the full overview of what your brand does, and why they do it, that’s why we say it’s the quintessential framework for evaluating and decision making.


Here are 3 Core Branding Building Models:


Brand Identity Prism

Kapferer’s Brand Prism (2004) is one method used in brand building, “Jean-Noel Kapferer’s Brand Identity Prism, which holds that brand identity occurs in a nexus between corporate image and consumer perception” (Anderson, 2010). Anderson points out an important part of the prism – that it incorporates the connection of a brand’s outward/ external expression on the left and the internal expression of the brand on the right. This model is used to determine the brand personality, and once it has been identified, it can then be built and consistently communicated.


The diagram below provides an overview of what the brand prism model might look like for Napier. Providing deeper insight into understanding our brand and how we can build upon it:.



Perceptual Map

The perceptual map model is used to visually analyse where competitors stand and benchmark according to the set values. The core outcome from a perceptual map is to see where you benchmark against your competitors. I’ve included a diagram below to demonstrate what this might look like for a selection of competing cake brands:



This clever acronym stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. The ADIA model is used when creating a brand’s messaging, and applies a simple structure that covers all the points to include when writing content, for example, the text for an advertisement. This model will usually look like the below diagram:


Customer Value Proposition (CVP)

The customer value proposition is a marketing statement, that is designed to persuade. The CVP perswades prospects on the benefits of a specific product/ service. It’s more of an external message for customers and prospects rather than an approach for internal use amongst employees.

In simple terms:

CVP = What the customer gets for what the customer pays


The customer value proposition can be put into three categories, there is benefits, points of difference, and resonating focus. The main challenge for marketers is how exactly we communicate the CVP to prospects.