It’s no secret that when used right, marketing automation platforms can produce fantastic results; and the key to success is to implement campaigns that find the balance between only scratching the surface and over-engineering the activities for little or no additional return.

Without the right campaigns, marketing automation platforms can easily become overly complex and difficult to manage. But if you get the campaigns right, you will quickly see the fantastic results marketing automation platforms can deliver.

Napier recently held a webinar ‘The 7 Marketing Automation Campaigns that Should get you Promoted‘, which provides a great overview of the campaigns you can implement for specific situations. We address:

  • Why simple campaigns are often the most effective
  • A walkthrough of 7 marketing automation campaigns that should get you promoted
  • An overview of some other great campaigns for specific situations
  • Why the campaigns you create, and not the tool you use, really matters

Register to view our webinar on demand by clicking here, and don’t hesitate to get in touch and let us know if our insight helped you.

Napier Webinar: ‘The 7 Marketing Automation Campaigns that Should get you Promoted’ Transcript

Speakers: Mike Maynard

Good afternoon and welcome to the latest Napier webinar. And this webinar is entitled The seven marketing automation campaigns that should get you promoted. Obviously, we do have a complete money back guarantee. So anything you’ve paid to attend the webinar will be refunded if you do follow the advice and don’t get promoted. And the first thing to say is, if you do have any questions, please put them into chat. And we will definitely answer those at the end of the webinar. So, at any time, just put them into chat, and we’ll cover them at the end.

So, what am I talking about today? Well, we’re going to start off and talk about why often simple campaigns are the most effective. And this is one of the messages you will see throughout the webinar is that overthinking things can often be a bad idea, keeping things simple, can be a lot better. We’ll then talk about these magic seven marketing automation campaigns. To give you some examples of some of the campaigns, we’ve seen that work really well. And will also give you a couple of additional bonus ideas, or ideas for specific situations, particularly people in e commerce. And finally, we’ll have a quick review of one of the tools that people are using. One of the things we do believe here at Napier is that the tool you use for market automation actually isn’t the most important thing. And in fact, many different tools can achieve the same goals. So it’s not all about the tools, for sure, it’s more about your campaigns, and your creativity, rather than necessarily the technology.

So in terms of introduction, at Napier, we think there are only three sorts of market automation users. There are people who overthink marketing automation and they make things way too complicated. And there’s people who use market automation tools, but really only scratched the surface so they don’t really get the full benefit. And finally, the third type. And the type we want you to be is those people who can use marketing automation tools to create results that feel almost magic. So, these incredibly good results that some companies get from marketing automation. Our belief is that the people who create magic, their key to success is creating simple campaigns that are also very effective. So we’ll talk a little bit about that going forward.

Now before we start, I want to talk a little bit about personalization. People discuss personalization a lot when they talk about marketing information. And it’s absolutely the case that personalization is incredibly important. But as you’ll see from the slide here, not everything that’s personalised is necessarily good. News bills are very, very personalised. And frankly, I don’t get particularly excited opening any bill that lands on my doormat in the morning. So the important thing about personalization with market automation is the amount of data that you can gather about a prospect, the information gather about you know, what they need to achieve, what they’re interested in, and what their problems or pain points are. And if you address those to your audience and personalise the content, based around those items, you’ll find your campaigns are very, very effective. And simply just getting the right name in the top line of an email is not going to make a huge amount of difference. In fact, most of the people who send me bills do it and I still don’t love them. So it’s very much all about, you know, meeting people’s needs, and helping them solve their problems. So we’re going to have a look at some of the marketing campaigns. And I think the interesting thing is when we put this together, we were thinking that, you know, for each campaign, we’d be giving examples of emails and workflows, and maybe some lists and lots of technology. Actually, when we put the presentation together, we realised that most of this was irrelevant and should be fairly straightforward. So what we want to do is, you know, really focus on what makes the difference.

So the first campaign is following up a form for whether this is someone who’s downloaded content or asked for information, or you know, perhaps signed up for an event. You know, this is one of the most basic automation campaigns, but one of the most important. So send at least one email in response to someone doing this and preferably send a sequence. But the most important thing is make sure that sequence adds value. And you add value by sending relevant information, so information that’s related to the reason they filled in the form, because that gives you a good indication of the topics they’re interested in, and maybe even the problems they’re facing in their role. Now, at Napier, we have a really strong view that you’ve got to focus on moving the prospect along the customer journey or through the funnel. So each email should also have an objective to try and move people from one stage to the next. Whether that be from awareness to interest, interest to desire or ultimately desire to action. So it’s all about moving people through that funnel. And typically, people do that by making an offer. So making a follow up offer, which is generally some content that is more suited for people who’ve moved a little bit further along the customer journey, and a little bit closer to making a decision.

Um, so people ask us a lot about timing. Well, the first thing is, is don’t use automation, to replace real responses if people contact you. And what you want to do is get back to them, make sure you get back to them in person as quickly as possible. So automation shouldn’t be an excuse for delaying responses. There’s been numerous studies about the effectiveness of picking up the phone to people who have just downloaded white papers or other contents. And the timescales are frighteningly short. And there’s a huge difference between calling someone within five minutes of downloading and calling someone a day later in terms of the results. So definitely make sure you have a timely response. People also ask about the speed that you send emails to follow up. What we see typically amongst our clients is that the workflows tend to space the emails out too much. Marketers imagine that anyone who fills in a form and downloads a white paper is going to be examining every word on that white paper for the next five weeks, that’s just not the case. So don’t be afraid to have relatively short intervals between your follow up emails. And the only way to really know what the right interval is, is to do A/B testing, so to test shorter and longer intervals between emails and see which get the best response.

So here’s an example of a very simple follow up email. And they don’t have to be laid out as complex HTML emails, they can be very simple and straightforward like this. And here we have someone who’s downloaded a b2b social media ebook, so a very general bit of content, on b2b, b2b, social media. What we’re trying to do with this email is find out or start finding out which platforms these people who’ve downloaded the content are interested in? Are they interested in Facebook? Or are they interested in LinkedIn? So the first thing we do is offer them a Facebook marketing report, if they start downloading, engaging with Facebook content, it probably suggests that they’re interested in Facebook activities. If they don’t download like this but download a follow up email that talks about LinkedIn, then clearly, they’re much more interested in LinkedIn. So we’re always building information about the people who we’re interacting with, using our marketing automation platform, and building up that profile, purely for the reason of being able to better give them more targeted and more relevant information going forward. So the more we understand them, the more relevant the content that we can send them.

The other step as well as to keep moving people through the funnel, as I said before, and obviously to people typically look at fairly broad stages in funnel. So you know, here’s a typical one that looks at awareness, consideration, purchase, and then people becoming buyers. And within the awareness and consideration, there’s multiple sub steps. And as you can see, with the previous email went from having a general interest in b2b social media, to really trying to understand specifically what the person is trying to achieve. So we’re offering very similar content, we might have that similar content that’s much more specific. There’s maybe a different format such as you know, if someone downloads a white paper, then we could offer them a webinar. If they download an E book, we might offer them a video and at some point, we will always recommend including a candidate Mail, which is a particular type of nurturing email that I’ll talk about later on in the presentation. The goal is always to move people down through this funnel or along their customer journey. But if you do find that people aren’t responding to the content, then it’s always worth having an automation that goes back and tries again, a little bit further up the funnel, just to understand the level at which your particular contact is working. So if they’re purely in the consideration phase, so looking at different options, so perhaps you offer, for example, a microcontroller. And they’re just trying to gather information about microcontrollers, they won’t respond to, for example, an offer of an evaluation board to start programming that microcontroller. So if you’re not seeing a response to something that moves them down the funnel, go back, because it’s likely that they’ll be interested in content that’s back at that stage that they were when they engage with you initially.

So this is how you create the follow up to, to form fills. So very simple process considering, you know, what would be the next step for your typical customer. After filling in the form would it be, you know, to get more information, or would it be to, for example, evaluate a product, or maybe it would be to even get some pricing. So it’s very much about trying to understand and then trying to move that customer or potential customer through their journey to become one of your buyers. However, sometimes this doesn’t work. So often your work with a response to someone filling in a form and getting nothing back from them, you’re try going back up to a higher level in the funnel or earlier stage in the journey, you still won’t get anything, eventually the lead goes cold, and quite clearly, you, you’re going to have to stop emailing them and give it a bit of a break. But this usually means that we have clients with large numbers of contacts in their database that aren’t really actively engaging. And so the second campaign, the campaign that can be really effective is to reengage a cold lead. So here we have our poor lead out in the cold walking through the snow. And we’ve got to think about what we’re trying to do well, the first thing to say is we’re not necessarily trying to get them to click on an email. The goal is to find out if the content is contact is relevant, maybe that they’re not currently working on projects that would use your products or services, to find out if they’re still interested, and maybe find out if they’re worth keeping on the database. And, you know, when I talk to clients, I’m always very keen to avoid talking too much about database size and number of contacts, it’s very easy to build up very large databases, with a vast majority of contacts are completely inactive, and you have no idea whether these people are actually still working. Or maybe they’ve retired or perhaps they’ve just sent all your emails to spam and will never buy from you again, none of those people are going to be useful to have on your database. So the goal with any kind of reengagement is to try and find out if the contact is relevant, interested and worth keeping as a contact on your database.

So there’s lots of different ways to do this. And, you know, I’ve given a few examples here, anyone from Starbucks, to HubSpot, and Duolingo. And it’s all about trying to get some sort of response that shows that the prospect is still interesting, interested. Sometimes that’s very simple that your lingo simply asks if they’re if you’re still interested. And other times, you might, for example, give people the option to be taken off the list to show that they’re no longer interested. And then sometimes you either give them a content offer, or as in the case of Starbucks, they’re actually giving a chance for you to enter your birthday. And so you get birthday rewards so to see if people are interested, obviously, you’re unlikely to send a gift Starbucks your birthday, if you don’t like coffee and aren’t interested in getting any vouchers from them. So all of this is about trying to understand whether that contact is relevant and interested. There’s also something which is generally called by marketers the breakup email often you see this with a cheesy subject lines, I’ve had emails, you know, that have subject lines like it’s me, not you, or time to part ways and one very good trick is to Have an email, where you just say, Look literally just replies with one, two or three, you know, where are you? And we’ve actually used this email with quite a lot of success, to find out if people are still interested. And, you know, number two is I want to talk, let’s schedule a time to talk. This certainly is not the majority of your cold leads are going to come back and say, Yes, I want a conversation. But believe it or not, we do get responses coming back with number two. And clients or contacts we thought had lost interest, actually are then ready to talk. So the idea of having this breakup email is one to say, you know, look, if, if you’re really not interested, let me know. But, you know, let’s have one last chance. And the last chance creates that feeling of scarcity, which obviously is critical in a lot of marketing activities, and can often trigger some action from the contact. So in terms of re engaging contacts, this this, what I’ve seen called as the market is Hail Mary, of the breakup email is always a good way to, you know, have one last go at trying to get people to engage.

Campaign three is newsletters. Now, I think a lot of people are going to be surprised that newsletters can get you promoted. I think personally, newsletters have a pretty bad rap. Generally, a lot of people think that newsletters are rather outdated and uninteresting. But actually, if we look here at Napier, for example, one of our biggest sources of news new clients is actually our newsletter, where we have inquiries coming back from sending the newsletter out. There’s very simple rules with newsletters. And that really is a great content means a great newsletter. And I find it interesting that, you know, we still see companies who will advertise on publications, newsletters, but not invest in their own. And I think, you know, if we look here, this is a newsletter from the electronics industry. It’s not the most beautiful email you’ve ever seen, for sure. But actually, this newsletter works pretty well. And we know our clients have got pretty good results from it. And the reason is, is because the newsletter includes relevant content to those engineers, they’ve got a good database, and they’re sending them content they’re interested in. So if you can create a newsletter, which requires a frequent supply of really good, strong, engaging content, that absolutely say that’s one of the campaign’s that could get you promoted.

The next campaign is event follow up. I always think that follow up after events is a bit of a dirty secret between marketers and engineers. Because everyone knows, it’s never as good as you imagined it will be as you’re setting up the booth for the event. So this is my favourite sales, quote, you know, I love my sales job. It’s just the work I hate. And I think most sales people quite like being sales people, but most of them absolutely hate the cold follow up after trade shows, particularly if they’ve not met the individual they’re contacting. Not only that, I mean, salespeople are incredibly busy after events, they’ve taken time out for the event. They spent time, you know, meeting people already knew and often finding opportunities that way, they’ve almost certainly got what they believe is the great hot lead and far better than anything else you can give them. And so the fact is, they will not call all the leads. So one of the most important things is to have a mechanism to follow up automatically. And marketing automation is a great way to do that, where you can at least follow up with a couple of emails thanking people for visiting the stand, and just trying to see if anyone has an immediate requirement. And if people do and they come back to you from this, this engagement email after the event, it’s a great way to then grab the salespersons attention rather than giving them a long list of all these people waiting in line to get to a trade show of which you know, most probably won’t have an immediate requirement. And so it’s about finding out those contacts who are willing and ready to talk.

Campaign five is the sales connect email, I find it quite surprising. This is one of the emails that a lot of people seem to forget about when they use marketing automation tools. And I think it’s because people tend to come from bulk email tools. So the kind of tools that are there to distribute mass emails, they move to market automation, they’re obviously continuing to run things like newsletters which are absolutely bulk emails and making them look Like marketing emails. However, don’t underestimate the value of creating emails that look nothing like marketing emails. So I’m gonna give an example from HubSpot, where they actually send out emails that look like their personal emails from a salesperson. They don’t need to be HTML. And in fact, other than the fact that in the signature, there’s an image and some formatted text, this could almost be an email that was in plain text, it’s not about the look, it’s about making it feel personal. And there’s a there’s a couple of things that HubSpot recommend here. So you know, the first thing is to personalise the first name, so obviously call the person by their name, they didn’t quite manage it with this example. It’s then to make sure that you immediately personalise with the salespersons name. Now, this does require sometimes some quite complex logic in the back end of marketing automation systems to make sure that every contact that gets entered into your database gets allocated to the right person. So they get an email from the salesperson that is going to work with them going forward. But it’s definitely worth it. And writing an email like this gets much, much higher response rates than sending a standard marketing email. And it’s also important to make sure it’s very easy for the recipients to schedule a meeting or schedule a conversation, if that’s what they want. There’s a lot of scheduling tools you can use, most market automation systems will offer one. And if not, there’s other services that will allow you to effectively put the power into your potential customers hand and let them schedule the meeting. So making it easy for the recipient is really important. And then finally, the signature that really personalises the email, and makes it feel that it’s not an email from, you know, marketing at or sales that it really is from an individual person. And HubSpot. Obviously, they they’re very focused on also including images of the person as well. So it feels even more personal when you see the image of the person that’s supposed to be sending the email. It goes without saying that Sophia has absolutely no idea who’s receiving these emails, it’s all done automatically. And it’s all about making sure that you get as many outbound contacts as possible. That’s then going to give Sophia as many conversations and opportunities to sell as possible.

Okay, so campaign six it is is a different tack. So you don’t just have to use marketing automation tools to send emails to the contacts on the database. Sometimes it’s really important to send internal emails. So one of the things we do at Napier is we have a list of potential customers we really care about. And so these are companies that maybe we’re pitching for, or perhaps they’re companies that we just really want to work with. And if this, what we do here is we have an email that actually tracks those people. And if they visit the website, will get an email like this, which says the contact for your target list has visited the website and looked at and we’ll have a URL there. It will give their name the company, the country and also the lead owner. The reason we do this is actually this email goes out to multiple people so we know who has to take action. And if it’s not us, we’re certainly on the ball chasing whoever owns the lead to make sure they take action. It’s a really good email and it can often trigger a great conversation with a potential customer you really care about. HubSpot do a very similar thing as well, and what they do in addition to highlighting it to salespeople is they will also actually send out another Connect email. Now, different industries and different companies have a range of views on whether or not it’s creepy to send out an email based upon activity on the website. HubSpot has the benefit that they’re basically selling to marketers and the marketers are looking to buy marketing automation so they understand what HubSpot is capable of. So the barrier for being creepy is much much lower. But in many industries, people will choose not to send an email and certainly not to reference pages that they know the prospect is viewed, simply because it just feels wrong, it doesn’t feel right for the relationship. So I would always, you know, be keen to inform people internally when your key prospects hit the website, I would definitely look at what you believe is right for your brand as to whether you send follow ups directly to the customer or not based upon their website browsing activity.

So the last campaign is onboarding. So this is people who’ve either just started working with you, and getting them up to speed with what you do, which is something that you know, someone who’s more service base might do. Or perhaps it’s a customer who’s bought a new tool or a new product, and it’s to give them some degree of confidence, they’ve done the right thing. So it’s really to avoid any chance of buyer’s remorse. So if we have a look, this is an interesting study that was done by copy hackers. And so they were asked to create onboarding emails. I think probably most people will be familiar with Wistia, and copy hackers did a number of things that ultimately resulted in a three and a half times increase in the number of conversions Wistia got for people moving from trial to a paid programme. So this means that every lead was three and a half times more likely to actually turn into a paying customer a massive increase. And the thing I find very interesting is, predominantly what they did was they increased the volume of content. And you can see, you know, the left hand side email, to brand or not to brand, this is a little bit light-hearted. And it’s really talking about how you can brand your Wistia videos. But what copy hackers did was not only did they change the headline, but they include a huge amount of information for people to read. And they know that whoever they’re sending the email to is interesting Wistia because they’ve signed up for a free trial. And actually, it turned out that all this extra information, increased engagement, and made it a much more successful campaign. And if anyone’s interested, there is a link on the presentation that lets you see exactly what they did. And some of the other tricks they used as well as creating longer emails. So where people either download a software tool or buy a hardware development, but board, or perhaps even just purchase a product for the first time, these onboarding emails can be very, very useful, increasing engagement. And my view is they’re massively underestimated. In b2b, they’re very frequently not part of the campaign, I strongly recommend thinking about onboarding emails where it makes sense.

So those were our seven core ideas, we have a couple of additional ideas that I just like to run over. So the first one is to make your salespeople love you, unfortunately, your sales team on necessarily going to promote you. But they can certainly make your life difficult. So what we recommend is what we call it a time-waster automation. And it’s all about minimising the effort for a salesperson to say, this lead is not a lead, I want to follow up so rejecting a lead. And there can be a couple of things you do with that. So we literally have a drop down for every lead that we generate internally. And within that drop down, we can reject that lead very quickly, just by selecting the appropriate option. And that could be for example, that we’ve had an inquiry from a competitive agency who are just trying to check up on us and see what we’re doing. And there’s no point in US following up that lead. So we want to be able to remove it from our processes very quickly. Or it could be someone that we know is tied into another agency and is never going to move. And again, we just want to make it easy to to skip through to the next lead which hopefully is going to be more valuable when you have one of these time waster automation. And there’s two options, I mean, one is simply just to delete the contact, take them off the database, and the other is to create what I call a sales suppression list. So this would be a list of people who have been marked as time wasters to make sure they don’t go back into the sales lead flow. And either way you choose to do this whether you choose to delete or put on suppression list. You know both are good approaches. And it will depend upon how you work with your sales team. But the key to this is making it as easy and as quick as possible for sales to move on to the next lead, and spend their time on the valuable contacts, rather than spend their time on the less valuable time wasting contacts.

The other thing we wanted to talk about was simple, but effective e-commerce, emails. And there are two emails that I think you know, pretty much everybody uses. One is an abandoned cart email. And I did try and get an example of an abandoned cart, email and abandoned a couple of cards and didn’t get any email responses. So clearly, it’s not as widely used as perhaps it should be. But quite often, for anybody who sells online, this is, you know, the email that gets the biggest return on investment. The one thing I would say is a lot of people do what pro flowers do, which is offer a discount. So you know, you’ve got things that you started to check out with you stopped, when you have a discount, you can have 10% off if you buy these products. Of course, the problem with that is is that people very quickly catch on. And they’ll always abandon their cart to get that 10% discount voucher. So don’t train customers to expect discounts. The other email that is always very effective is people who bought this book that type emails, we ran a campaign for a client, with these emails, that generated over a million pounds in additional sales. So hugely effective emails, there can be some issues. So this is an email I got recently, which offered me the Scottish flag, the Welsh flag and actually the Italian flag as well. The reason I got this is some while ago, I bought a union jack, but I bought union jack to actually go to sporting events. And being English, I’m very unlikely to want a Scottish or Welsh or indeed an Italian flag at a sporting event. So I mean, be careful of algorithms. Obviously, Amazon has got an algorithm that says, you know, people buy one flag quite often buy another. But in this case, it’s clearly not worked very well. So even Amazon, with all their resources, don’t always get it right with the people who bought this product are likely to buy those algorithms. Although I do have to say Amazon has made a fair bit of money out of me with the emails they send recommending products that are related to things I’ve bought.


Finally, we want to talk about campaigns. It really is about the campaigns, it’s not about the technology. A lot of what we talked about today have been very, very simple email campaigns that can be used in almost any marketing automation system. So almost any micro motion platform will deliver great campaigns. So think about the content, not the technology. And always look to simplify workflows, I think the worst thing you can do is find a feature or a capability on a marketing automation platform, and then try and build a campaign around that capability. It’s far better to, you know, start with what you want to achieve, and then work out how you’re going to do it. And this rather sexist quotes from Maslow, I think it’s very good, you know, the man who only has a hammer, everything he encounters begins to look like a nail. And indeed, the lady only has a hammer, everything she encounters might look like a nail as well. So don’t just think of your marketing automation platform as a tool that you must use in a particular way. Think of it as a tool that’s going to enable you to create the campaigns you want to create.

Um, finally, you know, to kind of emphasise this, you know, Napier is a certified SharpSpring, and certified HubSpot partner. But actually, we work across all marketing automation platforms. And we are not interested in pushing clients down particular platforms. There are reasons that we have that clients have chosen Marketo pardot, Eloqua, SharpSpring, HubSpot or act on or any of the others. But our ability to use these campaigns really stems from this approach of building the ideas and the concepts first, and then doing implementation second. And this means we can very quickly move and transform campaigns from one platform to another. And really, you know, ultimately the goal that everyone should be aiming for, is looking at return on investment, and where you can track sales all the way back. Looking at what the contact did, right when you first acquire that person Contact, which is possible. Certainly, if you have online purchasing, then I would absolutely recommend doing that.

So that’s completed the slides. Obviously, I’d like to answer any questions, I think there’s already some questions that have been asked. So just give me a second, I’m just going to have a look for them.

Okay, so the first question is about receiving a business card or visiting card and exhibition. So is it allowed to contact a lead after getting the visiting card and exhibition? This is a very difficult question, actually. So GDPR requires that you have certain policies about how you handle data. And within that you can decide whether you’re going to adopt a policy of legitimate use or a policy of pure opt in. So if you build your GDPR strategy around purely opting in, then the answer is no, probably just taking a business card and exhibition isn’t enough to justify an opt in. However, GDPR allows the use of legitimate interest within the b2b sector. And legitimate interest says, My business has a legitimate reason for contacting this person. And if somebody gives you a business card and exhibition, quite clearly, you have a legitimate reason for doing that. And if you’re following legitimate interest as your GDPR policy, then absolutely, you can definitely add that person to your database, and process that data. As another thing as well, um, GDPR doesn’t actually technically cover, I’m sending emails as such, it covers processing data. And processing data also includes processing data on paper. So once you start processing that, that business card, whether it’s by simply reviewing it, or storing it in a file, and you’re already impacted by GDPR. And our advice to clients is, unless you have a particular reason, absolutely, taking a legitimate interest approach is always the best way to do things.

And a second question I’ve got, which is a great question, which is how do you know who has visited your website? So this is an excellent question. And the answer is, this is what your marketing automation platform will do automatically. The way they do it is by putting a cookie on every browser that visits your website, and then trying to associate that cookie with a particular individual. So one way they can do that is if you fill in a form on the website, so if the person comes to your website, fills in a form, they can then associate the date of the entry in that form to the cookie. But also, if you send someone an email through your marketing automation tool, and they click through to the website, they’ll actually have some coding on that link that will allow a marketing automation tool to associate the records that contains that person’s information with the cookie on their browser, so then they know who that person is. And every time they return to the website, they will know who that is. And obviously, with market automation, the vast majority of visitors are anonymous. So you haven’t actually been able to associate the cookie to an individual. And this is why with moderation, it is important to be very proactive with email campaigns, because that’s what places that cookie and Associates it with an individual is by people clicking through and emails. So it’s really important to to do that. So you can associate people with the activity on your website, there are a few systems and some market automation systems also do this, they will do something called IP lookup. So what it will do is it will look at the IP address of visit your website. And it will try and work out which company they’re from. And large companies tend to have static IP addresses that are registered to them. So quite often it’s easy to associate a particular visit with a particular company. There’s some major downsides with this. In particular, it tends to only work with large companies. And if you’ve got a large number of people you’re targeting within that particular company. Say for example, you’re looking at an engineering company and trying to target engineers and you really have no idea which person that is. So you can understand that someone from particular companies visit your website, but you really can’t do anything with it because it could be one of thousands of engineers at the site. So you can, you can sometimes take a guess, if you have very specific campaigns to specific individuals. And you can use IP lookup, but generally speaking, it’s through people clicking on emails and filling in forms the lecture associate an individual with a website visit.

Well, thank you very much, everybody. I think I’ve covered all the questions I just checked, there’s nothing else. So I think I’ve covered all the questions. I really appreciate your time with this webinar. And look forward to talking with you when we present the next webinar. And if anyone’s got any feedback, please do let us know what you think of the webinar. And if anyone has any questions that they think of later on, please do contact me. My email address is Thanks very much, everyone.